Writer

Writer :- A person who has written something or who writes in a particular way someone whose work is to write books, poems, stories, etc.

 

  • A writer is a person who uses written words in various styles and techniques to communicate ideas. Writers produce various forms of literary art and creative writing such as novels, short stories, poetry, plays, news articles, screenplays, or essays. Skilled writers are able to use language to express ideas and their work contributes significantly to the cultural content of a society. The word is also used elsewhere in the arts – such as songwriter – but as a standalone term, “writer” normally refers to the creation of written language.
  • Writers can produce material across a number of genres, fictional or non-fictional. Other writers use multiple media – for example, graphics or illustration – to enhance the communication of their ideas. Another recent demand has been created by civil and government readers for the work of non-fictional technical writers, whose skills create understandable, interpretive documents of a practical or scientific nature. Some writers may use images (drawing, painting, graphics) or multimedia to augment their writing. In rare instances, a creative writer is able to communicate their ideas via music as well as words.
  • As well as producing their own written works, writers often write on how they write (that is, the process they use);why they write (that is, their motivation); and also comment on the work of other writers (criticism). Writers work professionally or non-professionally, that is, for payment or without payment and may be paid either in advance (or on acceptance), or only after their work is published. Payment is only one of the motivations of writers and many are never paid for their work. Till Their Novels, Movies, Films, Cinemas, Serials , Stage Shows, Dramas, Etc.., Are Hit And Till They Are Popular As Much As They Are Only. Remunerations Will Be Valid Till They Are Recognized.

 

The term writer is often used as a synonym of author, although the latter term has a somewhat broader meaning and is used to convey legal responsibility for a piece of writing, even if its composition is anonymous, unknown or collaborative.

1. Story Writer :- A story is simply a tale of events that are linked by cause and effect. It can be true or it can be a work of fiction. We expect stories to have a beginning, middle and end; they involve at least two characters, and some events take place.

In this article, I’ll take you through three major contemporary types of written story:

  • The short story
  • The novel
  • The life story (biography or autobiography)

For each, I’ll explain what it is, and how to write it successfully. I’ll end with tips about story writing which will help you improve your writing, whether you’re a beginner or a published author.

   

Three Types of Story

1. Short Stories

A short story is a piece of fiction under 20,000 words. More typically, a short story will be 1,000 – 5,000 words. (Pieces under 1,000 words are “short short stories” or “flash fiction”, over 20,000 and they’re novellas.)

Short stories are published in magazines, newspapers and book anthologies. Short stories need:

  • A small cast of characters, with one main character
  • A compact time frame, with the story taking place over the course of a few days or weeks
  • A single plot without subplots, though longer short stories may have a subplot

The majority of writing competitions are for complete short stories, rather than novels or novel excerpts. If you do enter competitions, don’t be put off writing if you don’t win – judges have different likes and dislikes.

 

How to Write a Great Short Story

Like any story, your short story needs to have a beginning, middle and end:

  • The beginning is where we’re introduced to the characters, especially the main character and his/her problem
  • The middle is where the action and plot develops. The main character will face difficulties such as opposition from other people or a challenging environment.
  • The end is where the main character triumphs over his/her biggest challenge (or fails, in the case of a tragedy). The resolution should be satisfying and conclusive for the reader.

Even in literary and experimental short stories, it’s important that something should happen. Much of the action might take place inside the characters’ heads, but there should be a real change as a result.

By the end of your short story, your main character should have experienced an internal change. This means that they’ve grown and developed as a person – perhaps overcoming a fear, or recognizing an unacknowledged truth about himself or herself.

2. Novels

A novel is a piece of fiction that’s 60,000 words or longer (shorter books are novellas). The typical novel is around 80,000 – 150,000 words, depending on genre.

Novels and short stories share similar structural features, but novels give the author a much wider scope. A novel might have:

  • More than one main character (though attempt this with caution!)
  • A large cast of characters
  • A long time frame – potentially covering several centuries and several generations
  • Multiple subplots

Novels tend to be much more popular than short stories with the reading public, and almost all full-time authors are novelists rather than short story writers.

How To Write A Novel

A novel is a much bigger undertaking than a short story. Even if you are able to write short stories without much planning, you’ll need to plan out your novel in advance. There are a number of ways to do this, but whichever you choose, ensure:

  • You have enough plot to meet your word count target
  • Your main character (protagonist) is sympathetic – readers of short stories will put up with a dull or unlikeable character, but novel readers are stuck with the character’s viewpoint for much longer. As the writer, you’ll need to be able to become your characters.
  • You have an escalation of events throughout the plot. Things need to get worse and worse for your characters, until they finally overcome their problems or enemies.

3. Life Stories

A life story is a true story – though it shares features with fictional stories. Life stories are either “biography” (when you write about someone else) or “autobiography” (when you write about yourself).

Most biographies and autobiographies are book length, similar to a novel. Many writers draw on their own life experiences for newspaper columns and magazine articles, though. There is also a market for “true life” stories in magazines, which are told in a story-like way: writing about your own life is a simple way to write about what you know.

 

How To Write A Life Story

A life story needs to be engaging and interesting for the reader. Don’t include boring details just because they’re “true” – the reader doesn’t need to know everything that happened. In many cases, details of childhood or dull years can be summarized – or told through a few vividly-drawn incidents.

You will need to be careful when writing a biography or autobiography to:

  • Structure your piece as a story, focusing on interesting events and incidents.
  • Show the personality of the subject (yourself or the person you’re writing about), and making sure the reader will find them at least partly likeable.
  • Be conscious of the other people involved – try to be sensitive to how they might feel (and avoid getting sued for libel – make sure you’re certain of your facts).

There is often a fine line between life writing and fiction. If you are writing the story of your life, you will need to make decisions about whether you will alter or make up lines of dialogue, for instance.

General Story Writing Tips

Whatever type of story or stories you’re writing, and however experienced you are, there’s always room for improvement…

Share Your Story Writing Efforts

It’s hard to write in isolation, and sharing your work with other writers is a great way to get feedback and suggestions. Look for a local writers’ circle, or join an online forum. You want to find somewhere that’s supportive but where people aren’t afraid to offer advice about things that aren’t working in your story.

Keep Learning

Writing is a craft that you can learn, like any other. There are hundreds of books on all aspects of writing, from the nuts and bolts of grammar and punctuation to writing in specific genres. You can also find free advice on the Internet (on blogs like this one). You can even take a degree or post-graduate course in creative writing.

Keep Practicing

As well as learning about writing, you need to practice. That means writing regularly – ideally daily. As you write more, your stories will get better – your characters are more “real”, your plots are convincing, and your endings are deeply satisfying to readers. You’ll also find that writing itself becomes easier: you’ll spend less time struggling to find the right words, and more time enjoying seeing the story spill from your fingers.

Always Revise

All authors need to revise their work. Your first draft might have a lot of problems – inconsistent characterization, scenes which don’t really fit, holes in the plot, incorrect pacing or tension. Don’t worry if this is the case: most published authors have to extensively rewrite their first drafts too. Always allow time to revise your story, and if possible, do several rewrites. Most authors recommend letting your story sit unread for a few days or weeks when you complete a draft, so that you can come to it with fresh eyes.

Whether you know it or not, there’s a process to writing – which many writers follow naturally. If you’re just getting started as a writer, though, or if you always find it a struggle to produce an essay, short story or blog, following the writing process will help.

2. Screenplay Writer :- A screenplay or script is a written work by screenwriters for a film or television program. These screenplays can be original works or adaptations from existing pieces of writing. In them, the movement, actions, expression, and dialogues of the characters are also narrated. A play for television is also known as a teleplay.

 

Format and style

The format is structured in a way that one page usually equates to one minute of screen time. In a “shooting script”, each scene is numbered, and technical direction may be given. In a “spec” or a “draft” in various stages of development, the scenes are not numbered, and technical direction is at a minimum. The standard font for a screenplay is 12 point, 10 pitch Courier Typeface.

The major components are action and dialogue. The “action” is written in the present tense. The “dialogue” are the lines the characters speak. Unique to the screenplay (as opposed to a stage play) is the use of slug lines.

The format consists of three aspects:

  1. The interplay between typeface/font, line spacing and type area, from which the standard of one page of text per one minute of screen time is derived. In the United States letter size paper and Courier 12 point are mandatory; Europe uniformly uses A4 as the standard paper size format, and has no uniform font requirement.
  2. The tab settings of the scene elements (dialogue, scenes headings, transitions, parenthetical s, etc.), which constitute the screenplay’s layout.
  3. The dialogue must be centered and the names must be capitalized. A script usually begins with “FADE IN:”, followed by the first scene description. It might get more specific, e.g. “FADE IN ON AN ECU of Ricky as he explains the divorce to Bob.” A script will usually end with “FADE TO BLACK”, though there are variables, like “CUT TO BLACK” for abrupt endings.

The style consists of a grammar that is specific to screenplays. This grammar also consists of two aspects:

  1. A prose that is manifestation-oriented, i.e. focuses largely on what is audible and what is visible on screen. This prose may only supply interpretations and explanation (deviate from the manifestation-oriented prose) if clarity would otherwise be adversely affected.
  2. Codified notation of certain technical or dramatic elements, such as scene transitions, changes in narrative perspective, sound effects, emphasis of dramatically relevant objects and characters speaking from outside a scene.

Types

Spec screenplay

A ‘spec’ or speculative screenplay is a script written to be sold on the open market with no upfront payment, or promise of payment. The content is usually invented solely by the screenwriter, though spec screenplays can also be based on established works, or real people and events.[1]

Commissioned screenplay

A commissioned screenplay is written by a hired writer. The concept is usually developed long before the screenwriter is brought on, and often has multiple writers work on it before the script is given a green-light.

What is a Screenplay?

In the most basic terms, a screenplay is a 90-120 page document written in Courier 12pt font on 8 1/2″ x 11″ bright white three-hole punched paper. Wondering why Courier font is used? It’s a timing issue. One formatted script page in Courier font equals roughly one minute of screen time. That’s why the average page count of a screenplay should come in between 90 and 120 pages. Comedies tend to be on the shorter side (90 pages, or 1 ½ hours) while Dramas run longer (120 pages, or 2 hours).

A screenplay can be an original piece, or based on a true story or previously written piece, like a novel, stage play or newspaper article. At its heart, a screenplay is a blueprint for the film it will one day become. Professionals on the set including the producer, director, set designer and actors all translate the screenwriter’s vision using their individual talents. Since the creation of a film is ultimately a collaborative art, the screenwriter must be aware of each person’s role and as such, the script should reflect the writer’s knowledge.

For example, it’s crucial to remember that film is primarily a visual medium. As a screenwriter, you must show what’s happening in a story, rather than tell. A 2-page inner monologue may work well for a novel, but is the kiss of death in a script. The very nature of screenwriting is based on how to show a story on a screen, and pivotal moments can be conveyed through something as simple as a look on an actor’s face. Let’s take a look at what a screenplay’s structure looks like.

3. Dialogue Writer :- Dialogue is a conversational passage in a narrative or play used to advance the plot or develop the characters.

 

For the fiction writer, the challenge is to create dialogue that advances the plot and sounds realistic. Awkward or forced dialogue will pull the reader out of the story.

Alternate Spellings: Dialog

Examples:

“Hills Like White Elephants” is an example of a short story that uses dialogue to reveal the conflict.

  1. conversation between two or more persons.
  1. the conversation between characters in a novel, drama, etc.
  1. an exchange of ideas or opinions on a particular issue, especially a political or religious issue, with a view to reaching an amicable agreement or settlement.
  1. a literary work in the form of a conversation: a dialogue of Plato. verb (used without object)
  1. to carry on a dialogue; converse.
  1. to discuss areas of disagreement frankly in order to resolve them.

 4. Song Writer :- Song Writer Will Eliminate The Movie Scene Which Can’t Be And Which Can Be Explained By The Music Which Gives The Meaning And Sense To The Story, Theme, Concept, Scene, Characters And Roles In A Film, A Song Said And Explained And Expressed And Pictured The Mode And Emotion Of The Character And Role In The Film, Cinema, Movie Which Gives The Music The Base And Song Will Be Out Put Explained.

A songwriter is an individual who originates songs, and can also be called a composer.[more information needed] The pressure to produce popular hits has tended to distribute responsibility between a number of people.[1] Popular culture songs may be written by group members, but are now usually written by staff writers: songwriters directly employed by music publishers.[1]

Some songwriters serve as their own music publishers, while others have outside publishers.[1] Furthermore, songwriters no longer need labels to support their music. Technology has advanced to the point where anyone can record at home.

The old-style apprenticeship approach to learning how to write songs is being supplemented by some universities and colleges and rock schools.[1] A knowledge of modern music technology and business skills is seen as necessary to make a songwriting career, and music colleges offer songwriting diplomas and degrees with music business modules.[1]

 

5. Script Writer :-

A screenwriter or scriptwriter or scenarist is a writer who practices the craft of screenwriting, writing screenplays on which mass media such as films, television programs, comics or video games are based.

 

Contents

  • 1 Profession
  • 2 Screenwriting in the film industry
  • 3 Script doctoring
  • 4 Development process of a project
  • 5 Production involvement
  • 6 Video game writing
  • 7 Union
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References

Profession

Screenwriting is a freelance profession. No education is required to become a professional screenwriter, just good storytelling abilities and imagination. Screenwriters are not hired employees, they are contracted freelancers. Most, if not all, screenwriters start their careers writing on speculation (spec), meaning they write without being hired or paid for it. When such a script is sold, it is called a spec script. What separates a professional screenwriter from an amateur screenwriter is that professional screenwriters are usually represented by a talent agency. Also, professional screenwriters do not work for free often, an amateur will often work for free and are considered writers “in training”. Spec scripts are usually penned by unknown professional screenwriters and amateur screenwriters. There are a legion of would-be screenwriters who attempt to enter the film industry but it often takes years of trial-and-error, failure, and gritty persistence to achieve success.

Screenwriting in the film industry

Every screenplay and teleplay begins with an idea, and screenwriters use those ideas to write scripts, with the intention of selling them and having them produced.[1] The majority of the time, a film project gets initiated by a screenwriter and because they initiated the project, the writing assignment exclusively becomes his or hers.[1] These are referred to as “exclusive” assignments or “pitched” assignments. Screenwriters who often pitch new projects, whether original or an adaptation, often do not have to worry about competing for assignments and are often more successful. When word is put out about a project a film studio, production company, or producer wants done, these are referred to as “open” assignments. Open assignments are more competitive. In situations where screenwriters are competing for an open assignment, more established writers will usually win these assignments. A screenwriter can also be approached and personally offered a writing assignment.

Script doctoring

Many screenwriters also work as full or part-time “script doctors”, attempting to better a script to suit the desires of a director or studio. For instance, studio management may have a complaint that the motivations of the characters are unclear or that the dialogue is weak.

Script-doctoring can be quite lucrative, especially for the better known writers. David Mamet and John Sayles, for instance, fund the movies they direct themselves, usually from their own screenplays, by writing and doctoring scripts for others. In fact, some writers make very profitable careers out of being the ninth or tenth writer to work on a piece; in many cases, working on projects that never see exposure to an audience of any size. Script doctoring companies, also known as script consultancies, are also often used by directors, production companies and individual screenwriters. These usually do not offer full re-writes, but are used when a production company or an individual requires feedback on whether or not a script is marketable, how it can be improved, and whether or not it holds any potential for development. Many up and coming screenwriters also “ghost write” projects and allow more established screenwriters to take public credit for the project.

Development process of a project

After a screenwriter finishes a project, he or she pairs with an industry-based representative, such as a producer, director, literary agent, entertainment lawyer, or an entertainment executive. These partnerships will often pitch their project to investors or others in a position to further a project. Once the script is sold the writer only has the rights that were agreed with the purchaser.[1] A screenwriter becomes credible once their work is recognized, giving the writer the opportunity to earn a higher income.[1] As more films are produced independently (outside the studio system), many up-and-coming screenwriters are turning to pitch fests, screenplay contests and independent development services to gain access to established and credible independent producers. Many development executives are now working independently in order to incubate their own pet projects.

Production involvement

Screenwriters are rarely involved in the development of a film. Sometimes they come on as advisors, or if they are established, as a producer. Some screenwriters also direct. Although many scripts are sold each year, many do not make it into production because the amount of scripts that are purchased every year outnumber the amount of professional directors that are working in the film and TV industry. When a screenwriter finishes a project and sells it to a film studio, production company, TV network, or producer, he or she often has to continue networking, mainly with directors or executives, and push to have their projects “chosen” and turned into films or TV shows. If interest in a script begins to fade, a project can go dead.